In Europe 캐나다밤알바, research classified undocumented workers according to contract continuity and working hours, and found differences for each work mode in terms of job dissatisfaction and workplace stress. Previous studies have shown that casual workers have greater job stressors than regular workers, higher job demands and job instability, lower job autonomy, and imperfect compensation systems. In short, such studies show that differences in working conditions between the two groups lead to differences in work stress levels. A previous study found that men and high-wage workers were more vulnerable to occupational risk factors among non-regular workers, simply because the average income of non-regular workers in our study was about 1.235 billion won, and they were more It is possible that high labor intensity and a difficult work environment are required to earn higher wages. Over the years, Hiseiki has seen a different situation, when she found that casual workers were the highest paid. 13 In the lost decades, the wage gap widened significantly only with women in small businesses (10-99 employees). Noticeably narrowed.
In fact, as the graph shows, the ratio of full-time workers to all workers aged 25 to 64 full-time workers to all workers aged 25 to 64 bottomed out at 56.6% (when it was 29.38 million) in January – March 2014, and recovered to 59.1 percent (30.94 million) in April-June this year. However, this upward trend in the share of permanent employees becomes dimmer when looking at older workers aged 65 and over, as the number of people aged 65 and over on the payroll increased by 2.1 million between January and March 2014. of these older workers are recruited into non-permanent positions. In other words, an increase in the share of non-permanent workers corresponds to a decrease in the share of the self-employed and other category, and not a decrease in the share of permanent workers. The graph clearly shows that the share of self-employed workers has decreased and the share of non-permanent workers has increased.
More and more companies in Japan are hiring non-permanent employees (a category that includes part-time employees, temporary employees, and business travelers). While the number of contract workers decreased by 170,000 between August 2006 and March 2007, non-permanent workers such as temporary/day laborers (200,000), part-time workers (170,000), seconded workers – “sent” workers to another job since the labor intermediary cannot hire them for more than two years (40,000), etc., increased. As the good times wore on, many companies simply transferred temporary employees instead of upgrading their new hires to full-time employees. The government has said the period for hiring contract workers should be extended from the current two years to three years, while the unions have pushed for a complete end to the precarious work system.
In this study, among non-permanent workers, working conditions were further classified as permanent (work for more than a year), temporary (work for more than a month but less than a year), daily (work for less than one year). year), month). In Korea, non-permanent workers include all workers except permanent workers who are hired by a single employer, work regular hours, and have no time limit. Non-permanent workers are those who have a fixed-term employment contract or work only for a repeated renewal of the contract. Atypical workers are workers whose employment relationship differs from that of the average worker and includes workers with special forms of work, temporary workers, subcontractors, domestic workers and day laborers.
Workers in various forms of employment have a much lower job security than regular workers, who in Japan work without a fixed term and with significant protection from dismissal, either by custom or by court order, for many years. staff members; non-permanent employees have limited access to on-the-job or formal training and poor career prospects (Hiseiki 2010). In general, non-permanent employees receive lower wages and other benefits than their full-time full-time counterparts, and they are also considered to face disadvantages in training and on-the-job training. In terms of employment status, temporary and casual workers were discriminated 1.45 and 1.83 times more than permanent workers. Thus, with the collapse of self-employment and family work, and the increased desire or need to enter the world of work among women and older people alike, the ranks of wage earners have expanded and many of these new entrants have been taken on permanent jobs.
The fact that female full-time employees, whose wages should have been higher than non-permanent employees, lost more jobs strongly suggests that, like male subcontractors, they constitute an exploitable buffer for non-permanent permanent employees. It is worth noting that the Supreme Court of Japan did not believe in Japan Post’s argument that the benefits given to full-time employees were based on the understanding that they would be working continuously, because even if the contracts of non-permanent employees are renewed every six or twelve months, in The reality of Japan Post’s approach clearly wants non-permanent employees to be hired full-time. On the contrary, as Japan’s Supreme Court has repeatedly stated in five major rulings, whether this difference in treatment is unreasonable must be decided on a case-by-case basis on a variety of relevant circumstances, such as the duties and scope of responsibilities of non-regular workers versus full-time employees at the same level, if the waiver of benefits is consistent with the purpose of the benefits, and if the firm’s specific practice of hiring temporary workers on a permanent basis is not full-time. Another Equal Pay Act prohibits unreasonable discrimination in working conditions between “permanent workers” with permanent contracts and other workers with fixed-term or part-time contracts (“non-permanent workers”).